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A parasite that inhabits the exterior of an organism.

Email or Phone Call Notification

Birth/death and exception related calls or emails will be billed to the laboratory per call/email per day. The Principal Investigator will be copied on all email communications.



The use of structures and resources to encourage species-specific behaviors and to enhance the psychological health and well-being of various species according to the requirements of The Guide (8th edition).

Enrichment Records

All records or logs pertaining to enrichment provision or exemption for select species.


Administration of substances into the gastrointestinal tract. Routes of enteral administration are listed below.

  • Per os (PO): Administration of substances by mouth.
  • Gavage: Administration of substances via a tube that is passed through the nose or mouth into the esophagus or stomach.
  • Rectal: Administration of substances into the rectum.

Environment, Health & Safety (EHS)

The U-M department responsible for ensuring safe work environments and practices for U-M employees, including personnel safety in animal and laboratory areas.

Environmental Hazard

Any substance, including antibiotics, that presents a concern for environmental contamination, but has been deemed not a risk to human health in the concentrations being used, thus can be used in an animal housing room other than an animal containment room. An example of this is antibiotics, which are not hazardous to humans directly but can cause problems with antibiotic resistance when released into the environment.

Environmental Hazard Sticker

Sticker placed on acetates or water bottles noting the name of the agent and date of administration.

Epidural (ED)

Administration of substances into the epidural space.

eResearch Animal Management (eRAM)

A web-based system for managing the submission, review, and approval for all applications/protocols; for animal requisitions, invoicing, and census management; and for acquiring or transferring animals or managing shortcodes.


Redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.


Term used to describe ending the life of an individual animal in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress.

Euthanasia Chamber

Used for exposure to euthanasia-inducing gases and may be either the animal’s home cage or a chamber specifically designed for the purpose of euthanasia. The euthanasia chamber or the euthanasia chamber lid must be transparent and allow an unobstructed view of the animal during the euthanasia process.

Euthanasia Notification

A special treatment or procedure in which the laboratory personnel would like to be contacted prior to euthanasia of a moribund animal.

Event Related Sterility

The sterility of an item is determined by how it is handled rather than by time (an expiration date).


An adult female sheep.

Exercise Records

All exercise logs or exemptions from exercise for select species.

Exhaust Plenum

Interior stainless steel area within ventilated rack used to direct airflow away from cages.

Experimentally Induced Disease/Research Record

A record that may be maintained by investigative personnel that may include:

  • Animal identification information
  • Date and type of procedure performed/compounds administered
  • Routine observations as defined by the protocol
  • Adverse or unexpected consequences
  • Date of euthanasia or termination of study

Expiration Date

A date after which something must no longer be used.

Items marked month/day/year are expired the next day (e.g., a drug marked 11/2/2020 is expired on 11/3/2020).

Items stamped month/year are expired the first day of the next month (e.g., a suture marked 11/2020 is expired on December 1, 2020).

Some medical devices or materials may have a production date, and not and expiration date. Users must follow the manufacturer’s directions regarding appropriate use timelines.

Items that have been sterilized by laboratories should follow the Guidelines for the Storage of Sterile Items, which states that items will remain sterile indefinitely unless the packaging is damaged. 

Extended Wean

Mouse pups must be weaned by 21 days of age. However some phenotypes result in runted pups that may benefit from extending their weaning age. If extended weaning required for a given strain or phenotype, it should be described in the approved protocol. Where extended weaning is used, post-partum breeding may not be utilized, as it will result in more than 1 litter in the cage. Co-housing of older and younger litters in one cage is detrimental to the health and survival of the younger litter.


Discharge of blood from a vessel into surrounding tissue.