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Anthelmintic

A pharmaceutical used to destroy and eliminate intestinal parasites.

Anthelmintic Resistance

A term used to describe an intestinal parasite which is not 90% cleared following treatment with a specific anthelmintic.

Antitoxin

An antibody administered for short-term neutralization of a bacterial toxin.

APHIS

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. APHIS is the agency within the USDA responsible for enforcing the Animal Welfare Act. The USDA receives its authority through federal law (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 7 and 9). Veterinary Medical Officers enforcing the 7 and 9 CFRs inspect research organizations at least annually.

Appropriate Blood Collection Age and Size

Animals must be > 6 weeks of age AND > 15 grams for blood collection. This is due to the fact that animals need to be at least 6 weeks of age to appropriately develop antibodies to exposed pathogens; in addition, at least 25µg of blood is needed for dried blood spot technology. Alternatively, PCR test on environmental swabs, tissues, or feces can be performed.

Aqueous Adjuvant

An adjuvant that uses water or physiologic saline as its background.

ASOR

Animal Surgery Operating Rooms; a division of the Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine.

Autoclave

A machine used to sterilize items through the use of a combination of steam and pressure. Cycles should achieve a minimum temperature of 250°F as listed on the autoclave print out when the cycle is complete.

Autoclave Tape

Tape containing ink which indicates if an elevated temperature has been reached during an autoclave cycle. It should be noted that a change in color of the autoclave tape does not verify that the autoclave contents have been sterilized.

Autoclave Test Strip

A specialized visual indicator used to evaluate the effectiveness of an autoclave sterilization cycle. These strips provide a more reliable evaluation than the use of autoclave tape and do not require incubation.

AVMA

American Veterinary Medical Association.

AWA/AWR

Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations (also known as "AWAR" or "AWA/AWR") are a set of standards for the humane care and treatment of mammals (except laboratory-bred rats and mice) involved in activities at government-registered research institutions. 

Baby

5 to 14-day old fish.

Baffle

An insert that goes into the back of the cages to allow water and debris to flow out of the tank while preventing fish from escaping.

BAR

Bright, alert and responsive.

Barcode Activation Sheet

Previously referred to as the "Breeding Sheet," this sheet is used to record when a barcode is being activated, to track the number of pups weaned, and to record the number of pups found dead or are used or euthanized prior to (including day of) weaning under a certain IACUC animal use protocol number.

Behavioral Welfare Group (BWG)

A group of designated individuals, including a faculty veterinarian, which works as a single point of contact for behavior, welfare, enrichment and social housing related issues.

Biohazard Sticker

Stickers used to designate something as having biohazardous properties.

Biological Indicator (BI)

The most reliable method of verifying the sterilization effectiveness of autoclaves. These small vials require a specific incubation period and protocol after which they are read or interpreted through observation of the vial's liquid media contents. Observations are most frequently based on a color change or change in turbidity (cloudiness). Examples include Magna Amps for liquid cycles and Steris Verify for gravity/prevac cycles.

Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC)

A Biological Safety Cabinet is used to provide containment of splashes or aerosols that may be generated while working with hazardous substances or animals exposed to such substances. All direct manipulation of animals within a containment room must be conducted within a BSC. When used correctly, BSC's provide personnel, product, and environmental protection.

Bioquell© Chemical Indicator Strips

A specialized visual indicator used to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaporized hydrogen peroxide by color changes on the strip.

Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)

A Biological Safety Cabinet is used to provide containment of splashes or aerosols that may be generated while working with hazardous substances or animals exposed to such substances. All direct manipulation of animals within a containment room must be conducted within a BSC. When used correctly, BSC's provide personnel, product, and environmental protection.

Bleach

Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach is frequently used as a disinfectant.

Body Condition Score (BCS)

A scale of 1-5. This measurement is preferred over body weight as body weight can be skewed based on tumor burden, growth of young animals, or other medical conditions.

Bolus

Administration of a large volume of a substance by injection.

BP

British Pharmacopeia.

Breeding Record

A cage specific record that includes:

  • Information about the breeders: birth dates of breeders (dam and sire), their genotypes, identifiers such as ear tag numbers, and what generation they are in the line (particularly if backcrossing or inbreeding)
  • Information about the breeding itself: the mate date (day the male and female/s were first co-housed)
  • Information about the resulting litters: birth dates of litters, number of pups born, number of pups noted to have died or become missing, and weaned, and weaning dates.
  • Digital records are useful to track breeding colony success over time. This can be done in excel or using an online mouse colony tracking software. A free online breeding tracking program is SoftMouse

Brine Shrimp (Artemia)

Common name for primitive crustacean that seldom reaches more than ½ inch in length; commonly used as fish food/enrichment.

Brine shrimp Cysts

Unhatched cysts and empty shells. These can cause mortalities in fish fry, as pieces of the shell or chorion can be lodged in the digestive tract of the fish.

Broken Glass Buckets

5-gallon white plastic buckets with lock-on lids and no screw cap. Designated for broken glass disposal only.

Brooder

A heated cage for housing young chickens.

Buck

Adult male rabbit.

Building Automation Systems (BAS)

Measures environmental conditions and compares the measurements to the desired settings.

Business Days

A business day is defined as any day during the week beginning Monday through Friday, including Thanksgiving Day, the Friday after Thanksgiving, and the 4 season days recognized by the University of Michigan.

BW

Body weight.

Cage Board

Textured cardboard. May be placed inside the chick housing area to provide a solid standing surface for chicks.

Cage Card

The 3"x 5" index card on the animal cage that includes the following information: Principal Investigator name, account# (short code), protocol #, species, strain, sex, number of animals and the date received. See the Documenting, Disposal and Reporting Animal Deaths SOP for more information.

Cage Cards

3" x 5" card affixed to the exterior of the cage. Cage cards may be white, yellow, pink, blue.

  • Yellow cards indicate litter births, litter weaning and pup deaths.
  • White cage cards indicate animals arrived from a vendor.
  • Pink cage cards refer to a weaned female litter or female animals.
  • Blue cage cards refer to a weaned male litter or male animals.

Carboy

A large glass or plastic bottle.

Carcinogen

An agent capable of causing cancer.

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