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Empowered

Enrichment

The use of structures and resources to encourage species-specific behaviors and to enhance the psychological health and well-being of various species according to the requirements of The Guide (8th edition).

Enrichment Records

All records or logs pertaining to enrichment provision or exemption for select species.

Enteral

Administration of substances into the gastrointestinal tract. Routes of enteral administration are listed below.

  • Per os (PO): Administration of substances by mouth.
  • Gavage: Administration of substances via a tube that is passed through the nose or mouth into the esophagus or stomach.
  • Rectal: Administration of substances into the rectum.

Environment, Health & Safety (EHS)

The U-M department responsible for ensuring safe work environments and practices for U-M employees, including personnel safety in animal and laboratory areas.

Environmental Hazard

Any substance, including antibiotics, that presents a concern for environmental contamination, but has been deemed not a risk to human health in the concentrations being used, thus can be used in an animal housing room other than an animal containment room. An example of this is antibiotics, which are not hazardous to humans directly but can cause problems with antibiotic resistance when released into the environment.

Environmental Hazard Sticker

Sticker placed on acetates or water bottles noting the name of the agent and date of administration.

Epidural (ED)

Administration of substances into the epidural space.

eResearch Animal Management (eRAM)

A web-based system for managing the submission, review, and approval for all applications/protocols; for animal requisitions, invoicing, and census management; and for acquiring or transferring animals or managing shortcodes.

Erythema

Redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.

Euthanasia

Term used to describe ending the life of an individual animal in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress.

Euthanasia Chamber

Used for exposure to euthanasia-inducing gases and may be either the animal’s home cage or a chamber specifically designed for the purpose of euthanasia. The euthanasia chamber or the euthanasia chamber lid must be transparent and allow an unobstructed view of the animal during the euthanasia process.

Euthanasia Notification

A special treatment or procedure in which the laboratory personnel would like to be contacted prior to euthanasia of a moribund animal.

Event Related Sterility

The sterility of an item is determined by how it is handled rather than by time (an expiration date).

Ewe

An adult female sheep.

Exercise Records

All exercise logs or exemptions from exercise for select species.

Exhaust Plenum

Interior stainless steel area within ventilated rack used to direct airflow away from cages.

Experimentally Induced Disease/Research Record

A record that may be maintained by investigative personnel that may include:

  • Animal identification information
  • Date and type of procedure performed/compounds administered
  • Routine observations as defined by the protocol
  • Adverse or unexpected consequences
  • Date of euthanasia or termination of study

Expiration Date

A previously determined date after which something must no longer be used.

Items marked month/day/year are expired the next day. E.g. a drug marked 11/2/2020 is expired on 11/3/2020.

Items stamped month/year are expired the first day of the next month. E.g. a suture marked 11/2020 is expired on December 1, 2020.

Extended Wean

Mouse pups must be weaned by 21 days of age. However some phenotypes result in runted pups that may benefit from extending their weaning age. If extended weaning required for a given strain or phenotype, it should be described in the approved protocol. Where extended weaning is used, post-partum breeding may not be utilized, as it will result in more than 1 litter in the cage. Co-housing of older and younger litters in one cage is detrimental to the health and survival of the younger litter.

Extravasation

Discharge of blood from a vessel into surrounding tissue.

FAMACHA

A visual system using the color of the conjunctiva of sheep to assess the need for deworming, via the severity of anemia, to aid in prevention of anthelmintic resistance.

FASS

Federation of Animal Science Societies.

FDA

Food & Drug Administration. The United States (U.S.) Food & Drug Administration is a government agency responsible for the regulation of a variety of biomedical and animal research-related products, including:

  • Prescription and non-prescription drugs
  • Biologics
  • Medical devices
  • Electronic products that give off radiation
  • Veterinary products

Fish Water

Water coming from the fish racks; safe for use on all equipment coming in contact with fish.

Flank Gland (Hamster)

Syrian hamsters have flank glands on the dorsum, near the level of the hip, that appear as darkly pigmented areas. Flank glands are more prominent in males than in females and can be mistaken for a lesion.

Flocked Swab

Cotton applicator with a single tip that is used to swipe against exhaust plenums or caging.

Fly Strike

Maggot infestation of sheep wool and skin.

Foamer

A receptacle attached to a hose that allows disinfectant and water to combine at specific dilutions and can be directed at a specified location for sanitization.

Food and Water Consumption Chart (Food Chart)

A full-page form for recording the amount of food and water provided and consumed by an animal in a given day. This form is typically initiated and monitored by veterinary technicians for those animals that have a clinical concern for the over- or under- consumption of food and/or water. It may be initiated by other University personnel as well.

Food and/or Water Restriction Records

A record maintained by investigative personnel that includes:

Food Chewer

Mice or rats who consistently chew or shred chow; this behavior causes the bottom of the cage floor to be filled with excessive amounts of food dust and/or chunks.

Foot Rot

A colloquial term for infection of the skin between the digits that may extend to the hoof wall. Foot rot is caused by coinfection with two bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum, and is a common cause of lameness in sheep.

Found Animal

Any mouse or rat found loose, or found in unlabeled cages within procedure or cage wash areas.

Frit

Mesh circular filter on each medium and large fish tank; keeps fish in tank while water and waste flow out; available in 3 different sizes.

Fuel

Many materials commonly used during animal use procedures are combustible. Some examples include endotracheal tubes, eye lubricants, towels, drapes, dressings, gauze, sponges, whiskers, skin, and fur.

Fur Mites

Myocoptes musculinisMyobia musculiRadfordia affinis, and Radfordia ensifera are different species of fur mites that can infest rodents.

Gassing Phase

Second Phase of a cycle during which VHP is expelled in the room.  Length of this phase is based on room dimensions.

Gavage

Administration of substances via a tube that is passed through the nose or mouth into the esophagus or stomach.

Genotyping

The process through which an animal's genetic make-up is determined using a sample taken from the animal.

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