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Opaque Cages

Cages that are not transparent but receptive to changes in light, generally used to minimize animal stress levels.


An opiate is an opioid drug such as buprenorphine, fentanyl, or morphine.


Contagious ecthyma, also known as orf or contagious pustular dermatitis, can cause crusting scabs anywhere on the body. Lesions are most frequently seen on the lips, nose, eyelids, tongue, ear, udder, and mucous membranes of sheep. In humans, the disease usually causes a firm, painful nodule on the hands or fingers. This localized lesion usually persists for 1-4 weeks.

Contagious ecthyma is transmissible to humans by direct contact with a lesion or with a contaminated fomite (e.g., bedding, equipment, manure, feed).


Surgical removal of the female reproductive organs.


In the context of the Policy on the Authority and Responsibility of the Quality Assurance Program, oversee refers to conducting reviews of approved animal activities on behalf of the IACUC to ensure that governing standards are satisfied.


Time spent providing services outside regular veterinary technician working hours (M-F 6 a.m.-5 p.m.), on weekends, and on holidays. Overtime charges will be calculated by business office personnel at a rate of 1.5 times the total time recorded during after hours/weekends/holidays.


Any oxidizer can be an element of a surgical fire including oxygen, anesthetic gases, nitrous oxide, medical air, and ambient air.


Tumors that have not reached protocol specific endpoint. This includes ulcerated tumors in protocols that allow minor ulcerations.


Recommended breeding strategy using one adult female and one adult male resulting in a single litter. Takes advantage of postpartum estrus. Pair breeding has been proven to produce significantly more pups per female when compared to trio breeding and may be less stressful for both pups and dams than trio breeding.a,b

Pair Housed

Describes primates housed such that two animals share the same cage space with full access to one another.



Pan Liner

Quilted pad placed under the brooder in the catch pan to collect waste product for easy disposal.

Panel Housed

Describes primates housed such that tactile contact is possible with another primate. This can be achieved via a panel with holes, mesh, grooming bars or other divider to limit access.


Powered Air Purifying Respirator.


Administration of substances outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Routes of parenteral administration are listed below.

  • Intravenous (IV): Administration of substances into venous circulation.
  • Intraperitoneal (IP): Administration of substances into the abdominal cavity.
  • Topical (epicutaneous): The application of substances directly to the skin for topical effect.
  • Transdermal (percutaneous): The application of substances directly to the skin for systemic effect.
  • Subcutaneous (SC): Administration of substances into the subcutaneous space.
  • Intradermal (ID): Administration of substances into the dermis.
  • Intramuscular (IM): Administration of substances into the muscle
  • Intranasal (IN): Administration of substances into the nose.
  • Intratracheal (IT): Administration of substances within the trachea.
  • Intracranial: Administration of substances into the brain.
  • Epidural (ED): Administration of substances into the epidural space.
  • Intrathecal (IT): Administration of substances into the subarachnoid space (in the spinal canal but not within the spinal cord).

Per Diem

The expenses used to maintain one animal/cage for one day.

Per os (PO)

Administration of substances by mouth.


The expenses used to maintain one animal/cage for one day.

Permanent Medical Record

A file identified by an animal's clinical number that contains all health, surgical, and/or procedural records generated for an animal. This includes:

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is a device or garment worn by the worker to protect against hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, face shields, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs), hard hats, respirators, and full body suits.


An unwanted or nuisance organism, such as rodents or insects, identified within a facility.

Pest Management Services

A section within Facilities & Operations at the University of Michigan providing facility treatment and control management plans for pests.

pH (potential of Hydrogen)

An electrical value that is the parameter for the acidity of water. Recommended level 6.8 - 7.5.

Pharmaceutical Grade

A drug, biologic, or reagent that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans or animals or for which a chemical purity standard has been established by the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF), or British Pharmacopeia (BP). These standards are used by manufacturers to help ensure the products are of the appropriate chemical purity and quality, in the appropriate solution or compound, to ensure stability, safety, and efficacy. The FDA maintains a database listing approved commercial formulations for human drugs (the Orange Book) and veterinary drugs (the Green Book). For chemicals, a certificate of analysis is usually available upon request. 

Physical Restraint

Physical restraint is defined by the Guide as “The use of manual or mechanical means to limit some or all of an animal’s normal movement for the purpose of examination, collection of samples, drug administration, therapy, or experimental manipulation.” Methods of restraint must be described in the animal use protocol and approved by the IACUC.

Examples of physical restraint include:

  • Restraint chambers or devices
  • Unconventional tethering - tethering that suspends the rear legs above the cage floor or short tethering that actually restricts movement
  • Large animal stanchions


Any pig less than 8 weeks of age.


Pinworms are nematode parasites which have simple, direct life cycles and are frequent contaminants of both specific pathogen free (SPF) and conventional colonies of laboratory mice. Two species of pinworms that commonly infect laboratory mice are Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

Pocket Timecard

A means to track the amount of time needed for each individual species of animal.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

One of the tests used by the Rodent Health Surveillance Team (RHST) to determine whether a colony is contaminated.

Positive Control

Liquid cycle biological indicator that has not been autoclaved but is turned in to the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory for incubation. A color change indicates that viable spores are present in the BIs.

Positive Pressure

Room is kept at a higher pressure than the surrounding rooms/hallway, causing air to flow out of room into surrounding areas when door is opened.

Post-Operative Period

The 7 to 10 days immediately following the initial day of surgery.

Post-Operative Record

A record maintained by investigative personnel that includes:

  • The surgery or procedure and the date it was performed
  • Notation of (at least) daily monitoring for the duration of the post-operative monitoring period as defined in the ULAM rodent or non-rodent mammal surgical guidelines, or as described in the animal use protocol.
  • Any drugs given, including the route, dose, and time/frequency.
  • For animal use protocols that state analgesia will be given "as needed," personnel MUST note that an animal is not painful/no longer needs analgesics BEFORE analgesics are discontinued.
    • The presence or absence of pain MUST be noted each day for the duration of the post-operative monitoring period.
  • The surgical/anesthetic/sedation record and the post-operative record may be combined and kept on a single sheet of paper if preferred.
  • Specific requirements for post-operative monitoring records can be found in these ULAM documents:

Power Washer

A high-pressure mechanical sprayer used to remove grime, dust, mud, and dirt from surfaces and objects.

Pre-emptive Analgesia

For the purpose of the Policy On Analgesia in Animals Undergoing Surgery, pre-emptive analgesia is analgesia administered before or immediately after an animal is anesthetized, but prior to initiation of a painful stimulus, such as skin incision.

Principal Investigator (PI)

The researcher who has received protocol approval to conduct the study.


  • Any manipulation of an animal that does not involve an incision made requiring closure.
  • Procedures can be performed for an experimental application, for examination purposes, or for treatment of an induced or spontaneous disease or condition.
    Examples of procedures include:
    • Injections
    • Bandaging/casting
    • Imaging
    • Antibody production
    • Blood/fluid collection
    • -Oscopies into natural opening that do not involve biopsy
    • Non-invasive physiological monitoring
    • Small tissue biopsy without cavity exposure
    • Bone marrow aspirate

Process Monitors

Steam indicator tape, ethylene oxide indicator tape, sterilization indicator strip, biological indicator, peel pouch indicator.

Prolonged Restraint

Prolonged restraint is defined as the physical restraint of an animal for a period exceeding 30 minutes.

Purpose-Bred SPF

Purpose-bred SPF cats are reared in a barrier environment and are not vaccinated. They are free from disease and from any antibodies related to feline infectious diseases. Purpose-bred SPF cats should always be worked with before any other cat.