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Time spent providing services outside regular veterinary technician working hours (M-F 6 a.m.-5 p.m.), on weekends, and on holidays. Overtime charges will be calculated by business office personnel at a rate of 1.5 times the total time recorded during after hours/weekends/holidays.


Any oxidizer can be an element of a surgical fire including oxygen, anesthetic gases, nitrous oxide, medical air, and ambient air.


Tumors that have not reached protocol specific endpoint. This includes ulcerated tumors in protocols that allow minor ulcerations.


Recommended breeding strategy using one adult female and one adult male resulting in a single litter. Takes advantage of postpartum estrus. Pair breeding has been proven to produce significantly more pups per female when compared to trio breeding and may be less stressful for both pups and dams than trio breeding.a,b

Pair Housed

Describes primates housed such that two animals share the same cage space with full access to one another.



Pan Liner

Quilted pad placed under the brooder in the catch pan to collect waste product for easy disposal.

Panel Housed

Describes primates housed such that tactile contact is possible with another primate. This can be achieved via a panel with holes, mesh, grooming bars or other divider to limit access.


Powered Air Purifying Respirator.


Administration of substances outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Routes of parenteral administration are listed below.

  • Intravenous (IV): Administration of substances into venous circulation.
  • Intraperitoneal (IP): Administration of substances into the abdominal cavity.
  • Topical (epicutaneous): The application of substances directly to the skin for topical effect.
  • Transdermal (percutaneous): The application of substances directly to the skin for systemic effect.
  • Subcutaneous (SC): Administration of substances into the subcutaneous space.
  • Intradermal (ID): Administration of substances into the dermis.
  • Intramuscular (IM): Administration of substances into the muscle
  • Intranasal (IN): Administration of substances into the nose.
  • Intratracheal (IT): Administration of substances within the trachea.
  • Intracranial: Administration of substances into the brain.
  • Epidural (ED): Administration of substances into the epidural space.
  • Intrathecal (IT): Administration of substances into the subarachnoid space (in the spinal canal but not within the spinal cord).

Per Diem

The expenses used to maintain one animal/cage for one day.

Per os (PO)

Administration of substances by mouth.


The expenses used to maintain one animal/cage for one day.

Permanent Medical Record

A file identified by an animal's clinical number that contains all health, surgical, and/or procedural records generated for an animal. This includes:

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is a device or garment worn by the worker to protect against hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, face shields, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs), hard hats, respirators, and full body suits.


An unwanted or nuisance organism, such as rodents or insects, identified within a facility.

Pest Management Services

A section within Facilities & Operations at the University of Michigan providing facility treatment and control management plans for pests.

pH (potential of Hydrogen)

An electrical value that is the parameter for the acidity of water. Recommended level 6.8 - 7.5.

Pharmaceutical Grade

A drug, biologic, or reagent that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans or animals or for which a chemical purity standard has been established by the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF), or British Pharmacopeia (BP). These standards are used by manufacturers to help ensure the products are of the appropriate chemical purity and quality, in the appropriate solution or compound, to ensure stability, safety, and efficacy. The FDA maintains a database listing approved commercial formulations for human drugs (the Orange Book) and veterinary drugs (the Green Book). For chemicals, a certificate of analysis is usually available upon request. 

Physical Restraint

Physical restraint is defined by the Guide as “The use of manual or mechanical means to limit some or all of an animal’s normal movement for the purpose of examination, collection of samples, drug administration, therapy, or experimental manipulation.” Methods of restraint must be described in the animal use protocol and approved by the IACUC.

Examples of physical restraint include:

  • Restraint chambers or devices
  • Unconventional tethering - tethering that suspends the rear legs above the cage floor or short tethering that actually restricts movement
  • Large animal stanchions


Any pig less than 8 weeks of age.


Pinworms are nematode parasites which have simple, direct life cycles and are frequent contaminants of both specific pathogen free (SPF) and conventional colonies of laboratory mice. Two species of pinworms that commonly infect laboratory mice are Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

Pocket Timecard

A means to track the amount of time needed for each individual species of animal.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

One of the tests used by the Rodent Health Surveillance Team (RHST) to determine whether a colony is contaminated.

Positive Control

Liquid cycle biological indicator that has not been autoclaved but is turned in to the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory for incubation. A color change indicates that viable spores are present in the BIs.

Positive Pressure

Room is kept at a higher pressure than the surrounding rooms/hallway, causing air to flow out of room into surrounding areas when door is opened.

Post-Operative Period

The 7 to 10 days immediately following the initial day of surgery.

Post-Operative Record

A record maintained by investigative personnel that includes:

  • The surgery or procedure and the date it was performed
  • Notation of (at least) daily monitoring for the duration of the post-operative monitoring period as defined in the ULAM rodent or non-rodent mammal surgical guidelines, or as described in the animal use protocol.
  • Any drugs given, including the route, dose, and time/frequency.
  • For animal use protocols that state analgesia will be given "as needed," personnel MUST note that an animal is not painful/no longer needs analgesics BEFORE analgesics are discontinued.
    • The presence or absence of pain MUST be noted each day for the duration of the post-operative monitoring period.
  • The surgical/anesthetic/sedation record and the post-operative record may be combined and kept on a single sheet of paper if preferred.
  • Specific requirements for post-operative monitoring records can be found in these ULAM documents:

Power Washer

A high-pressure mechanical sprayer used to remove grime, dust, mud, and dirt from surfaces and objects.

Pre-emptive Analgesia

For the purpose of the Policy On Analgesia in Animals Undergoing Surgery, pre-emptive analgesia is analgesia administered before or immediately after an animal is anesthetized, but prior to initiation of a painful stimulus, such as skin incision.

Principal Investigator (PI)

The researcher who has received protocol approval to conduct the study.


  • Any manipulation of an animal that does not involve an incision made requiring closure.
  • Procedures can be performed for an experimental application, for examination purposes, or for treatment of an induced or spontaneous disease or condition.
    Examples of procedures include:
    • Injections
    • Bandaging/casting
    • Imaging
    • Antibody production
    • Blood/fluid collection
    • -Oscopies into natural opening that do not involve biopsy
    • Non-invasive physiological monitoring
    • Small tissue biopsy without cavity exposure
    • Bone marrow aspirate

Process Monitors

Steam indicator tape, ethylene oxide indicator tape, sterilization indicator strip, biological indicator, peel pouch indicator.

Prolonged Restraint

Prolonged restraint is defined as the physical restraint of an animal for a period exceeding 30 minutes.

Purpose-Bred SPF

Purpose-bred SPF cats are reared in a barrier environment and are not vaccinated. They are free from disease and from any antibodies related to feline infectious diseases. Purpose-bred SPF cats should always be worked with before any other cat.

Q Fever

Most herds and flocks in the USA are infected with Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium that causes Q fever.

  • While there is a low risk of exposure from healthy cattle, sheep or goats, the highest risk of exposure to Q fever is from placental membranes, birthing fluids, and fetuses from infected sheep, goats, and cattle.
    • The bacteria can become airborne, particularly during births and cleaning of birthing areas.
  • In most individuals, the disease manifests itself as a flu-like illness that resolves in 10-14 days.
  • Women of child-bearing age or who are pregnant should be aware that this bacterium may cause miscarriage or other problems with the human fetus.
  • Employees should report occupational exposure to their physician if clinical signs of illness are noted.
  • Rarely, a person may develop a chronic infection with the Q fever organism. This can cause endocarditis - an infection on the valves of the heart that can be fatal.
  • Individuals with the following conditions should be advised of the risk of serious illness that may result from Q fever and should be discouraged from working with sheep, cattle, and goats at the time of parturition.
    • Congenital heart disease
    • Prior valvular heart disease
    • Chronically compromised or impaired immune system
    • Pregnancy

Quarantine Animal

Animals with disease or unknown health status.

Quarantine In situ (QIS)

Special exemption from campus-wide fur mite treatment; animals remain housed in their fixed locations through campus-wide fur mite treatment and are subjected to specific testing requirements to prevent re-infestation of campus. Details are provided below. 

Table 1: Fur Mite Species Differences

   Fur Mite Species   

   Life Cycle   


   Species Infected   

   Myocoptes musculinus   

   14 days   

   3rd and 4th legs heavily chitinized;   
   Eggs occupy ½ of abdomen   


   Myobia musculi   

   21-23 days   

   Single claw on 2nd digit   

   Mice and Rat   

   Radfordia affinis   

   Similar M. musculi   

   Two claws on 2nd digit (unequal length)   

   Mice and Rat   

   Radfordia ensifera   

   Similar M. musculi   

   Two claws on 2nd digit (equal length)   


Table 2: Treatment Summary

   Treatment Drug   



   Cage Labeling   

   Ivermectin Chow   

   12ppm ad lib   

   Continuously for 8 weeks   


   Ivermectin Water   

   12ppm ad lib   
   0.28cc / 8oz of water   
   1.2cc / L of water   

   Continuously for 8 weeks   

   Yellow acetate with green label   
   indicating ivermectin water   

   Moxidectin (topical)   

   Mouse - 3Dl   
   Rat - 10Dl   

   Application on days 1 and 10   

   Yellow acetate with green label   
   for recording 2 treatment dates   


   Cotton balls per animal:   
   Mouse - 2   
   Rat - 5   

   8 weeks with weekly change   

   Yellow acetate with green label   
   for recording 8 placement dates   


  • Quarter 1 (Q1) = January – March
  • Quarter 2 (Q2) = April – June
  • Quarter 3 (Q3) = July – September
  • Quarter 4 (Q4) = October – December

Rabbit Cage

Suspended caging measuring 15 inches high x 24 inches wide x 24 inches deep.