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Q Fever

Most herds and flocks in the USA are infected with Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium that causes Q fever.

  • While there is a low risk of exposure from healthy cattle, sheep or goats, the highest risk of exposure to Q fever is from placental membranes, birthing fluids, and fetuses from infected sheep, goats, and cattle.
    • The bacteria can become airborne, particularly during births and cleaning of birthing areas.
  • In most individuals, the disease manifests itself as a flu-like illness that resolves in 10-14 days.
  • Women of child-bearing age or who are pregnant should be aware that this bacterium may cause miscarriage or other problems with the human fetus.
  • Employees should report occupational exposure to their physician if clinical signs of illness are noted.
  • Rarely, a person may develop a chronic infection with the Q fever organism. This can cause endocarditis - an infection on the valves of the heart that can be fatal.
  • Individuals with the following conditions should be advised of the risk of serious illness that may result from Q fever and should be discouraged from working with sheep, cattle, and goats at the time of parturition.
    • Congenital heart disease
    • Prior valvular heart disease
    • Chronically compromised or impaired immune system
    • Pregnancy

Quarantine Animal

Animals with disease or unknown health status.

Quarantine In situ (QIS)

Special exemption from campus-wide fur mite treatment; animals remain housed in their fixed locations through campus-wide fur mite treatment and are subjected to specific testing requirements to prevent re-infestation of campus. Details are provided below. 

Table 1: Fur Mite Species Differences

   Fur Mite Species   

   Life Cycle   

   Morphology   

   Species Infected   

   Myocoptes musculinus   

   14 days   

   3rd and 4th legs heavily chitinized;   
   Eggs occupy ½ of abdomen   

   Mice   

   Myobia musculi   

   21-23 days   

   Single claw on 2nd digit   

   Mice and Rat   

   Radfordia affinis   

   Similar M. musculi   

   Two claws on 2nd digit (unequal length)   

   Mice and Rat   

   Radfordia ensifera   

   Similar M. musculi   

   Two claws on 2nd digit (equal length)   

   Rat   

Table 2: Treatment Summary

   Treatment Drug   

   Dose   

   Schedule   

   Cage Labeling   

   Ivermectin Chow   

   12ppm ad lib   

   Continuously for 8 weeks   

   None   

   Ivermectin Water   

   12ppm ad lib   
   0.28cc / 8oz of water   
   1.2cc / L of water   

   Continuously for 8 weeks   

   Yellow acetate with green label   
   indicating ivermectin water   

   Moxidectin (topical)   

   Mouse - 3Dl   
   Rat - 10Dl   

   Application on days 1 and 10   

   Yellow acetate with green label   
   for recording 2 treatment dates   

   MiteArrest   

   Cotton balls per animal:   
   Mouse - 2   
   Rat - 5   

   8 weeks with weekly change   

   Yellow acetate with green label   
   for recording 8 placement dates   

Quarters

  • Quarter 1 (Q1) = January – March
  • Quarter 2 (Q2) = April – June
  • Quarter 3 (Q3) = July – September
  • Quarter 4 (Q4) = October – December

Rabbit Cage

Suspended caging measuring 15 inches high x 24 inches wide x 24 inches deep.

Rabies

A viral disease transmitted from animals (e.g. dogs, cats, ferrets, skunks, bats, raccoons) to other animals or humans. Rabies infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death if early treatment is not provided. It is transmitted into bite wounds, open cuts in skin, or onto mucous membranes from saliva or other infectious material (e.g. neural tissue).

Rack

Shelving unit or any other unit used to house animals and/or supplies. All racks should be identified with stenciled numbers/letters placed in the upper right hand corner of the rack. Side A and Side B will be labeled.

RCA

Research Compliance Associate.

REAL

Refinement & Enrichment Advancements Laboratory; a division of the Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine.

Recommended Records

Those records that are not mandated (unless described in the protocol). However, generating and maintaining these records is highly recommended.

  • Experimentally induced disease/research records
  • Breeding records

Record of Disposition

A record of the death, euthanasia, transfer, sale, adoption, or donation of an animal.

Records from Vendor

Health information/medical history that arrives with the animal. This is incorporated into the animal's permanent medical record.

Rectal

Administration of substances into the rectum.

Red or Contaminated Rooms

Animals in rooms known to be contaminated with a virus, parasite or bacteria. Red sign indicates the contamination status and is placed on the door.

Reintroduction

Re-pairing two non-human primates who had previously been housed together but were separated for various reasons (study purposes, medical issues, etc.).

Relative Humidity (rH)

A measure for the amount of water vapor in the air.

Replicate Organism Detection and Counting (RODAC)

Agar plate used to detect and quantify the presence of microorganisms.

Report

Reports are verbal or written notices of concern relating to aspects of the U-M Animal Care & Use Program. Reports are not limited to allegations of noncompliance and may be associated with, for example, an adverse event.

REQ

Procedures that begin with (REQ) indicates the procedure is required to be followed by all ULAM personnel and laboratories providing internal daily husbandry care. All other procedures not beginning with (REQ) are still required to be followed by ULAM personnel but may not be adopted by laboratories providing internal daily husbandry care.

Required Records

Those records that must be maintained by investigative personnel:

  • Health/group health records are required if the laboratory personnel are performing any part of the monitoring and care of a non-research-related clinical condition under the direction of the veterinary staff.
  • Surgical/anesthetic/sedation records are required for all animals undergoing those procedures.
  • Post-operative monitoring records are required for all animals undergoing survival surgery.
  • Tumor monitoring records must be maintained as described in the animal use protocol for all animals with experimentally induced tumors
  • Food and water restriction records are required for all animals undergoing such restriction as per the animal use protocol and the Guidelines on Experimental Food or Water Restriction or Manipulation in Laboratory Animals.
  • Records of disposition are required for all cats and dogs.

Research Cause

A condition the lab is expecting or occurs due to their study.

Reservior

Receptacle that is part of the Chlori-Flush station that holds the bleach solution.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Public law that includes the proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposal.

Restriction

A limitation placed on an animal's access to food or water. It can be described in terms of either the amount of food or water provided on a daily basis (volume or weight) or the amount of time daily that an animal is given access to food and/or water.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water

A water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water; safe for use with frogs and fish. Salt will be added to this water to ensure appropriate conductivity levels as described above

Rodent Export Coordinator

The member of the ULAM Rodent Health Surveillance Team responsible for coordinating the export of rodents to other institutions or commercial vendors.

Rodent Health Surveillance Team (RHST)

Personnel responsible for maintaining and verifying healthy colony status within ULAM and laboratory managed rodent colonies. Email address: ULAM-RHST@umich.edu

RPV

Rat Parvovirus.

Safety Data Sheet (SDS)

Detailed informational document prepared by the manufacturer of a hazardous chemical describing the physical and chemical properties of the chemical.

Sanitize

To reduce the number of bacterial contaminants on an object or surface.

SC

Subcutaneous.

SCID Mouse

Severe Combined Immunodeficient mouse that has no T or B Cells.

Sedated Physical Examination

Complete examination performed while the non-human primate is sedated.

Sedation

Central depression causing stupor where the animal is unaware of its surroundings but still responsive to painful procedures.

Self-Latching Alarm

An alarm that is remembered by a sensor after it has been activated.  The Dräger sensor does not remember the alarm once the concentration reaches 0 PPM and would be non-self-latching.

Serious Noncompliance

Serious noncompliance is any noncompliant event that has a negative impact on the welfare of an animal and/or human, and/or is in direct conflict with federal standards governing animal activities, including provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Program. For more information, please see Appendix 1 of the Policy on Investigating Noncompliance and Animal Welfare Concerns.

Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID)

Animals that are deficient in B and T lymphocytes.

Sharps

Objects or devices having acute rigid corners, points, or edges capable of causing injury.

Shipping Container

Plastic or cardboard filtered box that SPF or conventional animals are shipped in. Other species are shipped in appropriate containers regulated by the Animal Welfare Act.

Short-Term Personnel

Short-Term Personnel are defined as individuals participating in a research or learning activity for 30 or fewer consecutive days (1 month) or 15 or fewer total days over a six-month period.

  • The intent is to permit an educational event, such as a visiting scientist sharing procedural knowledge or a summer student doing a rotation; the role of short-term personnel should not be used to fill employment gaps.

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